ارسال شده توسط Mahdi Movahed-Abtahi در 91/12/16:: 4:43 عصر
My critiques on “The Ten Commandments and the Tablets in Shi`i and Sunni Tafsir Literature: A Comparative Perspective”: a published paper in The Muslim Word journal, indexed in ISI.The author, Liaqat Takim, is the Professor of McMaster University.
Among Western scholarship, the Shi‘i view of the Biblical Decalogue and its relationship with the tablets have received scant attention. Most scholars have focused on the Sunni view of the Decalogue and the tablets mentioned in the Qur’an.This paper will initially discuss the presence of the Decalogue in the Qur’an. It will also compare and contrast the views of Sunni and Shi‘i commentators regarding the tablets in the Qur’an and will argue that the ambiguous Qur’anic terminology regarding the contents of the tablets provided Shi‘i commentators with hermeneutical tools to extend their possible ramifications. Using the Qur’anic terms maw‘iza (admonition) and tafsil (exposition) and focusing on the words “of all things” in verse 7:145, many Shi‘i exegetes claimed that the tablets were an important component of the divine-inspiredknowledge reportedly located in the Imam. This interpretation enabled them to increasethe status and authority of the Imams.
1. This paper is not a pure semantic study, content analysis, or conceptual analysis, focused on many key terms such as maw‘iza, tafsil, kitab, Quran, Turah, Imam, and“of all things”.
2. He did not prioritize these terms and their analysis?
3. The reader will not know how these terms relate?
4. He did not differ between “revealed scriptures or the heaven book” and “given/brought scriptures or the heaven book”.
I argue that;
a) Through revelation, the God reductively communicates to the mankind.
b) Ontologically, the Quran was so huge which could not be given directly to the prophet of Islam, while the Tablets was not so huge for the Moses to be reduced through the revelation.
c) The Tablets was a given –but not revealed-book to Moses and the Quran was revealed –but not given-book to the Muhammad (P.B.U.H). I derived this conclusion from the verse Anaam; 154.
5. The author did not refer to all quranic usages of Imam term (Yaseen; 12, al-Isra; 71, al-Baqrah; 124, al-Forqan; 74, al-Hijr;11, Hud; 17 and al-Ahqaf; 12 .
I argue that;
a) Imam in Quran refers to the book or a person(s): The Turah was an Imam for Muses`s followers (Hud; 17 and al-Ahqaf; 12).
b) Some persons are Imams for Abraham`s followers, Muslims, and all of people (al-Isra; 71, al-Baqrah; 124, al-Forqan; 74, al-Hijr;11, and Yasin; 12).
c) As the Quran says -va kolla shayen ahsaynaho fi emamen mobin (Yaseen; 12), the term of Imam is an ontological entity which describe his role (contains all things).
6. I ask him that;
- What things are validate the content of the Tablets: the Quran or traditions?
- Is the Quran prior to the traditions?
I argue that when a higher index for evaluating validity of traditions is present, we are not permitted to ignore it. The Quran is the most valid source of what the Tablets contained.
7. The following author`s argument is rejected:
“The tradition also mentions what the tablets contained. Although it does not describe
or explain the contents in detail, it stresses that the tablets contain information pertaining
to all previous and future events. This information is now available to the Ima¯ms whose
authority and knowledge would inevitably be enhanced. Sunni¯ exegetes, on the other
hand, interpret the same words in verse 7:145 (“of all things”) as referring to the
revelation of the halakhic and ethical codes to the Israelites”
8. The author did not explore the central role of “the Tablets”, “the given book to Moses”, “the Quran”, and “Imam(s)” which is explaining the God`s willing for precipitants. Based on both functions and roles, Imam and the Quran are related, so; they have not separated from other. The Prophet Muhammad emphasized this finding in the famous “saqalayin” tradition, narrated by Sunni and Shi`i exegeses.
As a conclusion; Imam and the Quran are linked and related, not separated from each other. The Quran and the Tablets are common in some aspects and differ in some others. The Tablets was Imam for its followers until the Quran was revealed and replaced it. Moreover, the Quran refers its followers to Imams.
A Persian translation of this paper is accessible here
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